Egyptian Book of the Dead


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The Declaration of Innocence from the The Egyptian Book of the Dead
HistoryWiz Primary Source

Ancient Egyptians believed that when they died, they made a journey to the afterlife, and so filled their tombs with the necessary objects of daily life such as food to aid them on their journey. One of these objects was the The Egyptian Book of the Dead, a guide for the journey. The Declaration of Innocence is made when the dead reached the Hall of the Two Truths where the god Osiris made the judgment about his destination in the afterlife.
 

1600-1500 BCE, Excerpts

I have not done crimes against people,
I have not mistreated cattle,...
I have not known what should not be known,
I did not begin a day by exacting more than my due,...
I have not blasphemed a god,
I have not robbed the poor.
I have not done what the god abhors,
I have not maligned a servant to his master.
I have not caused pain,
I have not caused tears.
I have not killed,
I have not ordered to kill,
I have not made anyone suffer.
I have not damaged the offerings in the temples,
I have not depleted the loaves of the gods,
 
 

I have not stolen the cakes of the dead...
I have not increased nor reduced the measure,...
I have not cheated in the fields.
I have not added to the weight of the balance,
I have not falsified the plummet of the scales.
I have not taken milk from the mouth of children,
I have not deprived cattle of their pasture...
I have not held back water in its season,
I have not dammed a flowing stream,
I have not quenched a needed fire.
I have not neglected the days of meat offerings,
I have not detained cattle belonging to the god,
I have not stopped a god in his procession.
I am pure, I am pure, I am pure, I am pure!


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